A bunion (also referred to as hallux valgus or hallux abducto valgus) is often described as a bump on the side of the big toe. But a bunion is more than that. The visible bump actually reflects changes in the bony framework of the front part of the foot. The big toe leans toward the second toe, rather than pointing straight ahead. This throws the bones out of alignment – producing the bunion’s “bump.” Bunions are most often caused by an inherited faulty mechanical structure of the foot. It is not the bunion itself that is inherited, but certain foot types that make a person prone to developing a bunion. Hallus valgus is also known as a bunion. Hallus valgus is presented with lateral deviation of the big toe (which is known as the first digit) and medial deviation of the first metatarsal head. This will result in the formation of the first metatarsal median prominence eminence. Progressively first metatarsophalangeal joint subluxation may also happen. A bunion is mostly affecting the musculoskeletal system and skin. The etiology or risk factors for developing hallus valgus are familial genetical predisposition , pes planus, contracture of the achilles tendon, pointed shoes or tight fitting shoe ( improper footwear ) , joint hyper elasticity, secondary toe amputation and metatarses primus varus. Do not let anatomic terminology trip up your foot and ankle claims. So long as you know the specifics of each condition in this category, you'll code foot and ankle services like an ace read more Hammer toes is a deformity of the joints, a bending of the toes usually the 2nd, 3rd or 4th toe. Hammer toes can become quite painful because of the pressure on your joints. Hammer toes can be caused by shoes that do not fit properly. read more People prone to flat-footedness should consider the use of arch supports, orthotic shoe inserts or special orthotic shoes to prevent or delay the development of bunions. As the big toe joint becomes more swollen and inflamed, the toe becomes stiff, which makes it difficult to bend or move the toe and interferes with walking, explains the AAOS. Infection Shoes rubbing against a bunion can cause blisters or open sores that can become infected. Foot infections are particularly dangerous in people with peripheral artery disease or diabetes, who often don't feel pain because their nerves are damaged and don't transmit pain sensations normally. Serious infection such as cellulitis can develop before an injury is noticed, the University of Michigan warns. Infection in the bone, called osteomylitis, can also develop. Surgery High Heel Shoes in today's times is the most stylish and preferred choice of footwear for all women and men of the world. Today's men and women are fashion-conscious and there's no denying that high heel shoes increase the style quotient of the wearer. Shoes were a necessity but they have become the fashion statement among men and women. They are the best friends of girls read more Essentially, the principles of surgery involves correction of soft tissue imbalances causing the deforming forces to deviate the toe and osteotomies to realign the metatarsal. One example of the surgery is the Scarf Osteotomy. In the US, more women seem to suffer from bunion than their male counterpart. Documentations show that more women undergo forefoot operations for the common ailments which are bunion, neuroma, and hammertoe. This may be due to the fact that women wear more restricting footwear than men. Commonly, women who wears shoes which are too tight will often get bunion pains and irritations. There are some individuals who have small bunions that are very uncomfortable. This limits their ability to wear shoes comfortably. On the other hand, some individuals may have quite significant deformities that are annoying but do not limit their activities in anyway. Fallen arches, commonly known as pes planus, is when the arch of the foot contacts the ground as a person stands. THE major muscle responsible for holding up the arch is the posterior tibialis muscle and it receives "instructions" to hold up the arch from the brain via the spinal cord, fifth lumbar nerve root (low back), the sciatic nerve, and finally through the tarsal tunnel as the tibial n. Ergo, any misalignment in the low back can "pinch" the nerve supply and cause the muscle to fail. Reduce any possible thermal stresses. This is rare, but shouldn't be overlooked, especially in extreme climates or during seasonal fluctuations. Moderate bunion. For a moderate bunion, the surgeon may cut the bone and shift it to its proper position. Whether or not the bone is cut depends on the severity and location of the deformity. In addition, the surrounding tendons and ligaments may need to be repositioned. Arthritic bunion or big toe joint. If the joint is damaged beyond repair, as is commonly seen in arthritis, it may need to be reconstructed or replaced with an artificial joint. Joint replacement implants may be used in the reconstruction of the big toe joint. Reasons for the procedure Realignment of the big toe is then done by releasing the tight structure on the lateral side of the first MTP joint. This includes the tight joint capsule and the tendon of the adductor hallucis muscle. As you can see, this muscle tends to pull the big toe inward. The toe is realigned and the joint capsule on the medial side of the big toe is tightened to keep the toe straight. Once the surgery is complete, it will take about 8 weeks before the bones and soft tissues are healed. The term is used to refer to the pathological bump on the side of the great toe joint. The bump is partly due to the swollen bursal sac and/or an osseous (bony) anomaly on the mesophalangeal joint (where the first metatarsal bone and hallux meet). The larger part of the bump is a normal part of the head of the first metatarsal bone that has tilted sideways to stick out at its top. Shoes that accommodate the bunion are a must. The toe box should be wide enough to comfortably fit the width of the forefoot and there must be wiggle-room for the toes.